On-line learning


On-line learning


Theories, Models and Practice

Over the past 2 decades our understanding of crime and crime
reduction has grown.  This section introduces and organises
some of the approaches that have been developed to inform crime
reduction practice. 

To make it easier to find what you are looking for, this section
has been divided into 3 categories.  Where there are
interconnections, links between the categories are clearly provided
within the text.

Theories and Models

Routine Activity Theory (RAT)
A summary of the theory developed by criminologist Marcus
Felson, which explains why crimes occur and looks at the 3 elements present when any crime is committed. RAT is sometimes
called the basic crime triangle.

Displacement theory
A summary of the theory that classifies the type of crime
displacement that may occur when a crime is prevented.

Rational Choice Theory (RCT)
A summary of the theory developed by Cornish and
Clarke which portrays offenders as active decision makers who
seek to benefit from their crimes.  This forms the basis
of Situational Crime Prevention.

Crime Prevention (SCP)
A summary of the opportunity-reducing methods that form SCP and
the focus on the settings for crime.

Ten Principles of Crime
Opportunity Theory
A brief description of the 10 principles
defined by Felson and Clarke.

Scanning, Analysis, Response,
Assessment (SARA)

A guide to a methodology for problem solving in
problem-oriented policing (POP).  

5Is: A practical tool for the
transfer and sharing of crime prevention knowledge

The 5Is will show you how to choose which ideas might work
in your area and how to apply the lessons others have learned
successfully, according to your own needs and circumstances. 

Conjunction of criminal opportunity

A framework to help you assemble your know-how and
knowledge in an orderly and systematic way. 

PROblem, Cause, Tactic or
Treatment, Output, Result(PROCTOR)

A guide to the approach devised to enhance the SARA model
by emphasising the importance of analysis throughout the
problem solving process.

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Practical Tools

Situational Crime
Prevention – 25 techniques for reducing the opportunity for

A listing of the updated 25 techniques of situational crime
prevention developed by Cornish and Clarke with 2 examples
for each technique.

Problem solving

A guide to help local problem-solvers take a critical look at
their current working practices and identify where
improvements can be made. 

Problem specification checklist
Taken from Working out what to do: Evidence-based crime
reduction by Nick Tilley and Gloria Laycock. 

Situational crime prevention

A summary of a Home Office report aimed at helping police
services and local partnerships approach crime prevention and
problem solving in a coherent, informed and structured way.  

Home security: an
introduction to domestic surveying

A computer-based training package and accompanying booklet
designed to help you learn how to carry out crime prevention
surveys on domestic properties.

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Learning Resources

Crime Reduction

This two-and-a-half hour training package, complete with
case studies and handouts, has been produced by the Crime
Reduction Centre to enable crime reduction messages to be put
across effectively to community groups.

Home survey training pack
The Home Survey Training Pack is designed to introduce
individuals and groups to the basic principles of domestic
surveying and to encourage them to get involved in reducing
crime by carrying out domestic surveys.

crime reduction

An on-line package designed to help Crime and Disorder
Reduction Partnerships develop an effective communication

to Crime Reduction

The package examines what we mean by crime reduction and looks
at the problem-solving tools and processes, which are the
foundation of the profession. It contains a case study
allowing the reader to put their new skills into practice.

Passport to

A distance learning package that looks at the basic techniques
used to evaluate crime reduction initiatives and projects.

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Last update:  20 July 2004

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